[Journal Articles]

Mark W. Grinstaff

Associate Professor
Boston University
CAS Chemistry
590 Commonwealth Ave.
Boston, MA 02215
Office: (617) 353-2500
Email: mgrin



*Interfacial Biomaterials


*Biodendrimer Ophthalmic Corneal Sealant
*Biodendrimer Drug Delivery Vehicles
*Amphiphiles for Gene Delivery

The Grinstaff Group pursues highly interdisciplinary research in the areas of biomedical engineering and macromolecular chemistry. The major goal in these research projects is to elucidate the underlying fundamental chemistry and engineering principles and to use that insight to direct our creative and scientific efforts. In one of our current research projects, we are designing, synthesizing, and characterizing novel dendrimers, termed “biodendrimers,” for tissue engineering and biotechnological applications. Currently, we are evaluating these novel biomaterials for the repair of corneal lacerations, for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs, for the delivery of DNA, and as temporary biodegradable scaffolds for cartilage repair. In a second project, we are creating novel polymeric coatings termed “interfacial biomaterials” that control biology on plastic, metal, and ceramic surfaces. In a third project, we are designing electrochemical-based sensors/devices using conducting polymer nanostructures and specific DNA structural motifs

Dendrimers are globular monodisperse polymers composed of branched repeating units emitting from a central core. We are synthesizing, characterizing, and evaluating a new class of dendritic polymers termed "Biodendrimers." These dendrimers are comprised of building blocks known to be biocompatible or degradable in vivo to natural metabolites. We have reported the synthesis of these macromolecules using either a divergent or convergent strategy. The introduction of biocompatible building blocks augments the favorable physical properties of dendrimers, and facilitates the design and development of new materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

In the extracellular matrix, chemical cues are present that control all aspects of cell biology. These surface-bound and soluble factors provide the necessary adhesion and signaling for normal cellular activity, and without such matrix support, the cells will apoptose. Implanted medical device surfaces lack the molecular features that provide guidance to the surrounding cells to afford optimal in vivo integration and function. Controlling the interface between the material and biological realms that occurs at the surface of these devices would have important implications for a range of medical technologies from sensors to orthopaedic implants. To achieve these goals we have developed a non-covalent coating, which we have termed an Interfacial Biomaterial (IFBM) that can direct biological processes at the interface between the surfaces of synthetic and biological materials. The approach entails identifying specific and high affinity adhesion peptides via phage display technology, and then, via chemical synthesis, assembling two or more peptides with known adhesion domains to create a multi-functional interfacial biomaterial. These multi-functional materials are amenable to coating and patterning techniques suggesting their use for applications ranging from proteomics to tissue engineering. In addition to cell adhesive coatings, we have recently reported cell-repellent or cytophobic coatings, and the use of these coatings to reduce the adhesion of two distinct mammalian cell lines and pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus strains. Interfacial biomaterials are new coating materials that provide a strategy to regulate biological processes at the critical interfacial site between two similar or dissimilar materials or biologics.

Journal Articles

38.) P. N. Bansal, N. S. Joshi, V. Entezari, B. C. Malone, R. C. Stewart, B. Snyder, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Cationic contrast agents improve quantification of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content by contrast enhanced CT imaging of cartilage," Journal of Orthopaedic Research, May 2011, pp. 704-209

37.) X. Zhang, C. A. Prata, J. A. Berlin, T. J. McIntosh, P. Barthelemy, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro transfection activity of charge-reversal amphiphiles for DNA delviery," Bioconjugate Chemistry, Vol. 22, 1 April 2011, pp. 690-699

36.) X. Zhang, P. G. Allen, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Macropinocytosis is the major pathway responsible for DNA transfection in CHO cells by a charge-reversal amphiphile," Molecular Pharmaceutics, Vol. 8, 30 March 2011, pp. 758-766

35.) A. M. Oelker, J. A. Berlin, M. Wathier, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Synthesis and characterization of dendron cross-linked PEG hydrogels as corneal adhesives," Biomacromolecules, Vol. 12, 18 March 2011, pp. 1658-1665

34.) S. R. Meyers, D. J. Kenan, X. Khoo, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Bioactive stent surface coating that promotes endothelialization while preventing platelet adhesion," Biomacromolecules, Vol. 12, 10 January 2011, pp. 533-539

33.) R. Liu, O. Khullar, A. P. Griset, J. E. Wade, K. A. Zubris, M. W. Grinstaff, and Y. L. Colson, "Paclitaxel-loaded expansile nanoparticles delay local recurrence in a heterotopic murine non-small cell lung cancer model," Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 19, 2011, pp. 1077-1084

32.) M. Camplo, M. Wathier, J. Chow, and M. W. Grinstaff, "A versatile reagent to synthesize diverse ionic liquids ranging from small molecules and dendrimers to functionalized proteins," ChemComm, Vol. 47, 2011, pp. 2128-2130

31.) X. Huang, S. Zauscher, G. A. Truskey, W. M. Reichert, D. J. Kenan, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Peptide interfacial biomaterials improve endothelial cell adhesion and spreading on synthetic polyglycolic acid materials," Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 38, No. 6, June 2010, pp. 1965-1976

30.) H. Cong, C. F. Becker, S. J. Elliot, M. W. Grinstaff, and J. A. Porco, "Silver nanoparticle-catalyzed diels-alder cycloadditions of 2'-hydroxychalcones," Journal of American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, 5 May 2010, pp. 7514-7518

29.) C. Ceballos, S. Khiati, C. A. Prata, X. Zhang, S. Giorgio, P. Marsal, M. W. Grinstaff, P. Barthelemy, and M. Camplo, "Cationic nucleoside lipids derived from universal bases: a rational approach for siRNA transfection," Bioconjugate Chemistry, Vol. 21, 19 May 2010, pp. 1062-1069

28.) J. B. Wolinsky, R. Liu, J. Walpole, L. R. Chirieac, Y. L. Colson, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Prevention of in vivo lung tumor growth by prolonged local delivery of hydroxycamptothecin using poly(ester-carbonate)-collagen composites," Journal of Controlled Release, Vol. 144, 22 February 2010, pp. 280-287

27.) X. Zhang, C. A. Prata, T. J. McIntosh, P. Barthelemy, and M. W. Grinstaff, "The effect of charge-reversal amphiphile spacer composition on DNA and siRNA delivery," Bioconjugate Chemistry, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2010, pp. 988-993

26.) M. D. Schulz, O. Khullar, J. V. Frangioni, M. W. Grinstaff, and Y. L. Colson, "Nanotechnology in thoracic surgery," Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 89, 2010, pp. S2188-S2190

25.) R. Liu, J. B. Wolinsky, J. Walpole, E. Southard, L. R. Chirieac, M. W. Grinstaff, and Y. L. Colson, "Prevention of local tumor recurrence following surgery using low-dose chemotherapeutic polymer films," Annals of Surgical Oncology, Vol. 17, 2010, pp. 1203-1213

24.) P. N. Bansal, N. S. Joshi, V. Entezari, M. W. Grinstaff, and B. Snyder, "Contrast enhanced computed tomography can predict the glycosaminoglycan content and biomechanical properties of articular cartilage," Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, Vol. 18, 2010, pp. 184-191

23.) N. S. Joshi, P. N. Bansal, R. C. Stewart, B. Snyder, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Effect of contrast agent charge on visualization of articular cartilage using computed tomography: exploiting electrostatic interactions for improved sensitivity," Journal of American Chemical Society, Vol. 131, August 2009, pp. 13234-13235

22.) J. P. Berdahl, C. S. Johnson, A. D. Proia, M. W. Grinstaff, and T. Kim, "Comparison of sutures and dendritic polymer adhesives for corneal laceration repair in an in vivo chicken model ," Archives of Opthalmology, Vol. 127, No. 4, April 2009, pp. 442-447

21.) A. P. Griset, J. Walpole, R. Liu, A. Gaffey, Y. L. Colson, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Expansile Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and in Vivo Efficacy of an Acid-Responsive Polymeric Drug Delivery System," Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 131, 30 January 2009, pp. 2469-2471

20.) S. Khiati, N. Pierre, S. Andriamanarivo, M. W. Grinstaff, N. Arazam, F. Nallet, L. Navailles, and P. Barthelemy, "Anionic nucleotide - Lipids for in vitro DNA transfection," Bioconjugate Chemistry, Vol. 20, 2009, pp. 1765-1772

19.) X. Khoo, P. T. Hamilton, G. A. O'Toole, B. Snyder, D. J. Kenan, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Directed assembly of PEGylated-peptide coatings for infection-resistant titanium metal," Journal of American Chemical Society, Vol. 131, 2009, pp. 10992-10997

18.) S. R. Meyers, X. Khoo, X. Huang, E. B. Walsh, M. W. Grinstaff, and D. J. Kenan, "The development of peptide-based interfacial biomaterials for generating biological functionality on the surface of bioinert materials," Biomaterials, Vol. 30, 2009, pp. 277-286

17.) C. Ceballos, C. A. Prata, S. Giorgio, F. Garzino, D. Payet, P. Barthelemy, M. W. Grinstaff, and M. Camplo, "Cationic Nucleoside Lipids Based on a 3-Nitropyrrole Universal Base for siRNA Delivery," Bioconjugate Chemistry, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2009, pp. 193-196

16.) L. Moreau, M. Camplo, M. Wathier, N. Taib, M. Laguerre, I. Bestel, M. W. Grinstaff, and P. Barthelemy, "Real Time Imaging of Supramolecular Assembly Formation via Programmed Nucleolipid Recognition," Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 130, 14 October 2008, pp. 14454-14455

15.) L. Degoricija, P. N. Bansal, S. H. Sontjens, N. S. Joshi, M. Takahashi, B. Snyder, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Hydrogels for Osteochondral Repair Based on Photocrosslinkable Carbamate Dendrimers," Biomacromolecules, Vol. 9, 25 July 2008, pp. 2863-2872

14.) S. M. Azouz, J. Walpole, S. Amirifeli, K. N. Taylor, M. W. Grinstaff, and Y. L. Colson, "Prevention of local tumor growth with paclitaxel-loaded microspheres," The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Vol. 135, No. 5, May 2008, pp. 1014-1021

13.) S. R. Meyers, D. J. Kenan, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Enzymatic Release of a Surface-Adsorbed RGD Therapeutic from a Cleavable Peptide Anchor," ChemMedChem, Vol. 3, 2008, pp. 1645-1648

12.) C. A. Prata, X. Zhang, D. Luo, T. J. McIntosh, P. Barthelemy, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Lipophilic Peptides for Gene Delivery," Bioconjugate Chemistry, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2008, pp. 418-420

11.) M. W. Grinstaff, "Dendritic Macromers for Hydrogel Formation: Tailored Materials for Opthalmic, Orthopedic, and Biotech Applications," Journal of Polymer Science: Part A: Polymer Chemsitry, Vol. 46, 2008, pp. 383-400

10.) M. Wathier, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Synthesis and properties of supramolecular ionic networks," Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 130, 2008, pp. 9648-9649

9.) J. B. Wolinsky, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of dendrimers for cancer treatment," Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, Vol. 60, 2008, pp. 1037-1055

8.) L. Degoricija, S. C. Johnson, M. Wathier, T. Kim, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Photo cross-linkable biodendrimers as ophthalmic adhesives for central lacerations and penetrating keratoplasties," Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 48, No. 5, May 2007, pp. 2037-2042

7.) M. M. Dominguez, M. Wathier, M. W. Grinstaff, and S. E. Schaus, "Immobilized hydrogels for screening of molecular interactions," Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 79, No. 3, 1 February 2007, pp. 1064-1066

6.) J. B. Wolinsky, W. C. Ray, Y. L. Colson, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Poly(carboante ester)s based on units of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid and glycerol," Macromolecules, Vol. 40, No. 20, 2007, pp. 7065-7068

5.) M. W. Grinstaff, "Designing hydrogel adhesives for corneal wound repair ," Biomaterials, Vol. 28, 2007, pp. 5205-5214

4.) S. R. Meyers, P. T. Hamilton, E. B. Walsh, D. J. Kenan, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Endothelialization of Titanium Surfaces," Advanced Materials, Vol. 19, 2007, pp. 2492-2498

3.) D. J. Kenan, E. B. Walsh, S. R. Meyers, G. A. O'Toole, E. G. Carruthers, W. K. Lee, S. Zauscher, C. A. Prata, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Peptide-PEG Amphiphiles as Brief Communication Cytophobic Coatings for Mammalian and Bacterial Cells," Chemistry and Biology, Vol. 13, July 2006, pp. 695-700

2.) J. A. Weinstein, M. T. Tierney, E. S. Davies, K. Base, A. A. Robeiro, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Probing the Electronic Structure of Platinum(II) Chromophores: Crystal Structures, NMR Structures, and Photophysical Properties of Six New Bis- and Di- Phenolate/Thiolate Pt(II)Diimine Chromophores," Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 45, No. 11, 2006, pp. 4544-4555

1.) L. Moreau, F. Ziarelli, P. Barthelemy, and M. W. Grinstaff, "Self-assembled microspheres from f-block elements and nucleoamphiphiles," ChemComm, 2006, pp. 1661-1663

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